Resource and energy saving technologies require an obligatory integrated approach to the production, distribution and consumption of electricity. And at the stage of building a house, modern energy-saving technologies are always combined with innovations in the field of construction, since a significant part of the electricity is used to heat the house in cold weather and to cool it in hot weather. This immediately requires the planned use of energy efficient materials. In addition, a customized household supply system will allow, in some cases, to abandon the traditional method of supplying electricity altogether.
Energy saving technologies in construction
The best example of energy-saving technologies in construction so far can serve as the so-called "energy efficient houses", in which, ideally, in winter, a comfortable temperature is maintained without using a traditional heating system, and in summer without an air conditioning system.
Such structures, depending on technological variations, are also called Zero Energy House - "zero energy houses" or "passive houses".
In order to get as close as possible to the standards of such a house, it contains:
- install an individual boiler room or other source of heat supply, often connecting pumps that return the heat of the exhaust air from the ventilation duct, the heat of the earth or waste water,
- replace part of the solar electricity (collector), and the direct energy of the sun, in turn, is competently utilized in accordance with the thermal balance of the building, connecting translucent and reflective structures,
- use modern thermal insulation materials, and this applies to both building materials and communication systems.
The energy saving method described above assumes that the building becomes the final recipient of electricity from power plants. Now, however, the possibility of a complete transition to individual energy supply systems is being considered as innovative practices, when the building itself, in fact, becomes a "power plant" and begins to distribute electricity to other consumers.
This is possible, for example, with the widespread use of nano-photovoltaic cells, which are called one of the most promising solutions. In Freiburg, Germany, the local solar energy institute is using the city's space as a kind of "testing ground" for solar technology testing, introducing solar panels in the stadium, rebuilding entire neighborhoods (58 residential buildings and an office building on the border of the district) for the new concept of "active houses". The main obstacle to the widespread adoption of these technologies is the high cost of ultrapure industrial silicone, which is used for batteries (about $ 450 / kg). It was replaced by nanotechnology and a special carbon - fullerene. But so far its efficiency is 2. 5 times lower than that of silicone solar cells.
Energy saving technologies in everyday life
The main direction in the creation of energy-saving technologies in everyday life is the individual regulation of power consumption using "smart" technologies, depending on:
- personal habits of residents and preferences in the microclimate,
- the time of the year (day) when the "smart" system rebuilds itself, choosing to turn on and with what intensity to work.
For example, an automatic home lighting system turns on the light only when necessary, turning it off during the day and turning it on in the evening when sound activated through the built-in microphone. When noise occurs within a radius of 5 meters, an energy-saving lamp automatically lights up, which does not go out while someone is in the room.
But until these "intellectual" innovations become dominant, experts recommend using the methods of "preventive saving" of electricity in everyday life, which include:
- replacement of incandescent lamps with energy-saving ones (with consumption reduced by 5-6 times) or even more economical LED ones,
- the transition to household appliances of a high class of energy efficiency (A- A +++), which, when compared with outdated models, can show a difference of 50%,
- turning off devices (equipment) in standby mode: TVs, music centers and tape recorders, which still consume 3-10 W in a switched off but not switched off state,
- turning off or putting the computer into sleep mode, which, during round-the-clock work, "eats" 70-120 kW / h per month.
Special attention should be paid to the refrigerator, which is advised:
- do not place next to the stove (increases energy consumption by 25-30%),
- do not fill with not yet cooled food,
- prevent the formation of a gap in the seal,
- do not cover the radiator and do not lean your "back" close to the wall.
The introduction of energy-saving technologies in housing and communal services looks like a transition to drives with the functions of optimizing the speed of rotation depending on the real load, which, when operating elevators or ventilation units, can save up to 50% of electricity.