Energy saving and energy efficiency improvement

energy saving and energy efficiency

The amount of energy that modern society consumes is increasing daily. Improving the energy efficiency of multi-apartment buildings (MKB) is one of the important challenges of the 21st century. The maximum effect of energy saving can be obtained through joint efforts of the state, management companies, and residents of houses.

What is energy efficiency and energy saving

Current trends in energy conservation are driving innovation in energy conservation. According to Federal Law No. 261, signed on November 23, 2009, energy efficiency is the ratio of the benefits obtained from the use of resources to the costs necessary to obtain them.

Energy saving is a set of measures, the purpose of which is the efficiency and economy of the use of energy resources. The main indicators of energy efficiency of multi-apartment residential buildings must meet the requirements of applicable laws in this area.

Energy efficiency legislation for residential buildings

Actions to improve the energy efficiency of buildings are governed by the following regulations:

  1. Order of the Ministry of Economic Development No. 61 of February 17, 2010, which approved an approximate sequence of actions aimed at improving energy efficiency
  2. Order of the Ministry of Construction No. 98 dated February 15, 2017, which approved a list of actions to promote energy saving and more efficient use of resources in apartment buildings

These orders define a list of actions to improve energy efficiency in an apartment building. Order No. 98 specifies the principle of assigning energy efficiency classes to apartment buildings. It determines the rationality of spending the resources required to maintain the facility. Taken together, both documents make it possible to determine a list of energy-saving measures, distributing them by cost level and type of resources.

Energy saving measures, according to the order of the Ministry of Construction No. 98

The energy saving program recommended by the Ministry of Construction and Housing and Utilities can be broken down by the types of resources used.

The result of the activities carried out in the first place should give the greatest effect. When all the priority requirements for energy efficiency are met in the house, the second stage of activities is performed. Their implementation is also very important. The order of activities is determined for technical and financial reasons.

It is proposed to implement the following measures to improve the energy efficiency of buildings.

Heating and hot water supply system

First of all, the following activities are carried out in the heating, hot and cold water supply system:

  • installation of balancing valves
  • balancing the heating system
  • flushing heating pipes
  • installation of meters for metering the consumption of hot water and heat at home and in each apartment

Secondly, they carry out:

  • installation of an individual heating point
  • heat exchanger installation
  • installation of a system designed to automatically control heating and hot water
  • pipe replacement
  • replacement of reinforcement
  • thermal insulation of pipelines in basements and attics, as well as in common areas
  • installation of valves for thermoregulation on heating devices
  • installation of shut-off valves
  • installation and modernization of pumps designed to provide water recirculation in hot water supply systems

Power supply and lighting system

First of all they carry out:

  • installation of common house and apartment electricity meters
  • installation of energy-saving lamps in areas intended for general use

Secondly, they carry out:

  • setting dimming in automatic mode
  • replacement of electric motors; installation of drives to provide frequency control

Doors, windows, roof and walls

First of all they carry out:

  • closing, insulation and sealing of driveway doors
  • installation of doors and dampers in basements and attics; sealing and sealing of windows located in common areas

Secondly, they carry out:

  • installing heat-reflecting films on windows
  • installation of low-emissivity glass in driveways
  • replacing old windows and doors with energy efficient ones
  • floor and wall insulation in the basement and attic
  • roof insulation
  • sealing joints between panels
  • wall insulation
  • glazing of loggias and balconies
  • reduction of losses in the air conditioning and ventilation system due to the installation of air dampers

Preparation of an energy saving program. Estimating costs and savings

The Energy Saving Program is a document based on the requirements of Article 25 of Federal Law No. 261, which describes the principles of energy conservation and energy efficiency. The energy saving program plan includes the following steps:

  • object data collection
  • express inspection of the building
  • energy audit to determine the available potential and reserves of energy savings
  • formation of a list of activities in order to increase the energy consumption class of MKD
  • determining the costs required to implement the plan
  • calculating estimated savings in natural and monetary value
  • calculating the payback period of planned energy saving measures
  • selection of funding sources
  • selection of persons responsible for the implementation of measures aimed at energy consumption in a saving mode
  • development of actions for the implementation of planned activities
  • filling, registration and approval of the energy saving program

Program to improve home energy efficiency targets:

  • takes into account the individual characteristics of each MKD
  • meets specific energy conservation needs
  • defines a specific plan to achieve the required level of energy efficiency
  • contains methods to rationally reduce energy costs and increase energy efficiency
  • takes into account available finances
  • makes the most of the energy potential of the building

The main result of the implementation of the developed program is to reduce costs and energy consumption. This allows the savings to be directed to higher priority areas of activity. The payback of the developed activities can be determined by one using the calculation:

  • simple payback period
  • discounted payback period
  • profitability ratio
  • Internal Rate of Return
  • net present value
  • Life Cycle Cost Analysis

Thermal imaging survey allows you to assess the energy efficiency class of a building, and to establish how efficient the consumption of heat and electrical energy in the house is. Such a survey is included in the energy audit complex. Based on the results obtained, an energy certificate for MKD is issued.

Energy efficiency improvement of buildings by apartment owners

Apartment owners can also improve the energy efficiency of buildings. This will lead to energy savings, therefore, the cost of utility bills will decrease. For this it is recommended:

  • insulate doors and window openings
  • install a second front door if the entrance is very cold
  • install heat shields behind the radiators
  • remove decorative grilles from batteries, if any
  • do not cover the radiators with curtains
  • replace old radiators with new ones
  • to glaze loggias and balconies
  • save electricity
  • save water

The adoption of these measures will save energy costs by 30-40% without special costs without reducing the quality of life.

Who is the performer and where to get the money from

The management organization is responsible for the maintenance of the housing stock. Therefore, it is she who is the executor of work to improve the energy efficiency of MKD. The source of funding is the payment made by the residents of the house for the maintenance of the living quarters. Part of the work can be carried out under a civil law contract.

The management organization has the right to pay the amount of the costs of energy saving measures under the contract-contract in payment for the maintenance of the residential premises, having previously signed an agreement with the owners on the implementation of work.

Capital repair programs under the program of the Fund for the Promotion of Reforms (FRS) for Housing and Utilities, without fail include measures to improve energy efficiency and save energy resources in apartment blocks, at the expense of the fund.

Low-cost interventions in apartment buildings

A home operating in energy saving mode consumes far fewer resources. Energy-saving technologies can be implemented even through low-cost activities. To do this, follow:

  • Flush the heating system
  • insulate driveways
  • install door closers
  • examine the heating system
  • install heat shields behind the radiators
  • install heating regulators that allow you to regulate the temperature of the coolant depending on the air temperature in the room

Energy efficiency measures in buildings requiring large investments

Technical and large-scale events are expensive, but they improve the energy efficiency of a building much more. These include:

  • installation of modern windows with high thermal resistance
  • installing new radiators
  • improvement of individual heating points
  • selection of energy efficient heating boilers
  • automation of the process of loading and operation from heating boilers
  • insulation of common areas
  • execution of modern thermal insulation on pipelines
  • installation of variable speed drive in water supply and drainage systems
  • installation of a variable frequency drive on pumping equipment
  • replacing old power grids with new ones

Energy efficient overhaul can significantly reduce energy consumption. In addition, it is recommended to regularly monitor and analyze new modern technologies that increase energy efficiency and, if possible, put them into practice. All these measures help to significantly save the amount of resources spent on maintenance of apartment buildings.