The utility sector of the economy is one of the largest consumers of fuel, heat and electric energy. Modern life is unthinkable without energy services. Comfortable living conditions are provided with lighting, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, household electrical appliances. Domestic communications, information and entertainment service implemented via phones, televisions, computers, etc. One who has learned to save electricity, water, heat, gas in his apartment, a better understanding of the need for energy saving in an apartment building and at work
Due to its geographical location Belarus is a country with a relatively cold climate. The duration of the heating period is about 200 days, which determines a significant proportion of the energy used for heating. At the household level consumed almost 40% of the total amount of fuel and energy resources of the Republic. Consumed housing and utility sector, thermal energy is used for heating (60-70%) and hot water including(30-40%).
Unfortunately, the efficiency of domestic energy consumption in our Republic is very low. For heating and hot water the apartment of an average family of 3-4 people annually in CHP or in boilers burn more than 3 there. In addition, during the year, such a family consumes 1200-1800 kWh of electricity. These values are in average 2 times higher than in industrialized European countries with comparable climates. This energy comfort in our homes is much lower: lacks many modern appliances, in areas often supported high enough temperature, poor air quality. Energy and domestic comfort largely determines the quality of life of the population, human health, availability of free time.
Comparison of domestic and foreign figures indicates the significant potential energy savings at the household level, especially for thermal energy, and the necessity of the project implementation with the aim of saving energy resources and improving the quality of life of people. To solve these problems, according to the State program "energy Saving", and provided a set of long-term and short-term events.
Mandatory conditions for the success of their solutions are as follows:
- psychological disposition and the desire of the population to save energy;
- knowledge of the ways of energy saving and the ability to use them in daily life;
- the zealous attitude of people towards the use of energy comfort on a subconscious level, the internal discipline of careful energy consumption.
If the first two conditions can be achieved in a relatively short time due to economic and institutional incentives, information and educational measures, the implementation of the latter requires a long time, as it implies the formation of man from childhood to certain standards of behavior and habits, due to concern about the future of energy and environmental welfare of our planet. This is why the Republic is organized and improved multi-stage system of education in the field of energy saving, constantly information and advertising work.
In large measure the existing energy saving potential in housing sector can be implemented in a short time by the tenants with a simple, inexpensive, and effective ways. It is important to understand the energy savings not as a rejection of comfort, but rather a way of ensuring the necessary conditions of life for the individual and society in General with a limited number of primary energy resources.
The basic principles of developing programs to reduce energy consumption in the home
Where to start working to reduce energy consumption? You first need to determine the volume of consumption of different types of resources and amounts of payment, that is to conduct a kind of energy audit. This will help the counters (if any) and account for energy consumption as well as simple calculations and measurements. It is desirable to determine the average or unit value of consumption of the resource for different periods of time (week, month, year). It is a prerequisite of permanent and systematic work on energy efficiency. To assess the potential energy savings it is necessary to compare the obtained values with the standards and European performance.
This will help to answer the first question – save a life is a priority? The logical answer is the one that counts, because it will bring You direct benefits. Naturally, undertake costly energy efficiency measures that may not bring direct and immediate savings needs after a detailed analysis of the benefits from their implementation. Here we have only considered only the electrical energy payment other energy is divided equally between a large number of consumers. However, you should know that the savings of any energy source reduces its overall consumption and overall spending on it, and Your budget including. In addition, the situation is gradually changing: sooner or later all the energy will be taken into account, and the one who had to learn to save them, that will be much easier. If you take into account all types of energy resources, it is necessary to relate the costs of implementation of energy saving measures and benefit from them, then rank. From all this derive the objectives and program of Your activities on saving energy, and also determines the expected impact.
Consider potential areas for saving of all types consumed in the home energy.
Economy of thermal energy.
Currently, heat meters not widespread for several reasons: high cost, insufficient study and measurement accuracy, etc. However, this issue can be viewed in a different perspective: how to maintain enough in the apartment a comfortable temperature with poor heating? You first need to prepare the heating system.
Heaters should be washed inside and periodically clear the dust outside. During operation the inner surface is covered with rust and scale; sometimes the thickness of the deposits reaches a value that substantially prevents the canal water, not to mention the heat transfer. To ensure proper airflow, do not clutter up the space with furniture near heating appliances. It is strictly forbidden to close them decorative plates, panels and even curtains, because in addition to the sharp reduction of heat transfer increasing heat loss. To reduce heat loss through the wall behind the radiator, and improving air circulation is recommended to increase the distance between the device and the wall. It is recommended to install convectors heat reflective screen and the insulating layer. To limit the transfer of heated air to the surface of the inner glass Windows required installing the wide window sill. Paint radiators with oil paint reduces heat transfer by 8-13 %, so it is recommended to use the zinc oxide.
Along with the problem of insufficient heating, there is the problem paratope. Paratope usually suffer from the residents closest to the heating sources of homes. The reason paratope – unbalanced heating system. So it begs the output - you need to regulate themselves. To do this, look whether You have the heating pipe (1) bypass (4). Perhaps the builders simply "forgot" to install it. Then install the bypass (4) and thermostat (2) or even a simple ball valve will allow you to adjust the amount of coolant through the heater (3) and adjust the temperature in the room.
The problem of cold, the situation is much more complicated. The root cause of low temperature in our homes is not a bad quality heating and a huge heat loss. Specific consumption of thermal energy per square meter of housing in our Republic 2-4 times (depending on the specific type of building) is higher than in European countries with comparable climates. This suggests that produces and even is supplied in the house a lot of heat, but it soon is lost. Heat loss in buildings according Beltei on average are distributed as follows:
- Windows – 36%;
- ventilation – 28%;
- walls – 26%;
- slab, basement – 10%.
Since the major heat losses account for Windows, then insulate (better change) should be first and foremost. The most effective method is to install double-glazed Windows. It is now proposed that many structures, differing abilities to retain heat, the lifetime, the environmental characteristics and, accordingly, price. Usual double-glazed Windows contain between the panes and dry air differ from normal Windows only of high integrity, easy cleaning and a more aesthetic appearance. Available vacuumed double pane Windows and double-glazed Windows filled with inert gases. They have great thermal resistance. Glass can be coated with low-emissivity termootrazhayuschim layer which prevents the withdrawal of heat in the form of radiation and reduces heat loss through Windows by 30-35%. Double glazing, manufactured with the most advanced technologies have thermal resistance as in conventional exterior walls. Often the Windows are installed instead of the glass in standard frames. This yields triple glazing, which allows even more to reduce the heat losses.
If the installation of double-glazed Windows means no, then you need to take care of reducing heat loss through existing Windows. First, the glass must be thoroughly cleaned, to then skimp on coverage. Secondly, it is necessary to eliminate all cracks and leaks. You can glue the paper, but this should be done in calm weather. To remove gaps between the frame and the concrete box you can use the foam. Glass should be intact. Cheap and very effective solution is to groove on the inner surface of the outer cover additional grooves and extra glass (in good condition binding) or transparent polymer films. Turns out triple glazing and heat loss through Windows is reduced by 20-30%. For lowering the humidity of the air between the bindings it is recommended to use adsorbents. Dry air has a lower thermal conductivity and further reduces the intensity of fogging and freezing of glasses. In winter it is advisable to hang blackout curtains that do not cover radiators. Glazing of balconies and loggias helps to reduce overall heat losses by 10...13 %. To reduce heat loss through doorways, you must install double doors, doors with multiple seals, to arrange lobbies.
Then you need to take care of ventilation, which often creates excess winter traction. The kitchen air vent you can cover partially, and in the bathroom at all close, as this will allow you to moisturize excessively dry air (winter air in a heated room that has low humidity, which negatively affects health) and to create a feeling of warmth. It is further recommended to insulate the exterior walls if the room corner, and the walls on the stairwell.
Saving electricity when using electric stoves.
First, you need to have an alternative to the stove: electroscience, elektrokofemolke, ovens that have a much greater efficiency.
Secondly, the cooker must be serviceable. Propavshaya, chipped and swellings, dirty heating elements are significantly worse perform their function, unless of course perform.
Thirdly, you need to have the appropriate utensils. Each time you must choose the size of the cookware, suitable the situation. All utensils should be with lids. The fact is that without a cover, you need two times more energy and do not care, no cover at all or it is not really tight. The bottom of the cookware for electric stoves should be smooth and tightly lay a heating element. When cooking or boiling water, it is advisable to turn off the burners several early complete or boiling water, this allows you to save up to 20% energy due to the thermal inertia of the heated burners. When cooking multiple dishes, you can save from 10 to 30% of electricity, if you use the still hot burner to pre-heat water used in cooked dishes, if you use the pre-settled water at room temperature, not cold straight from the tap.
Saving energy when using plates of all types. Products for heat treatment which takes a long time, it is better to cook in pressure cookers. At the beginning of cooking you must install the full capacity of the burner, and when the water boils reduce it to a minimum, since the boiling point of water depends on the power input of the heat flow at 100°C. And the speed of cooking depends on temperature only. Thus, excess heat is spent only on the evaporation of water in the room (dampness) and leads to a waste of energy (electricity or gas) without affecting the cooking time.